The Nature Futures Framework has been applied in a variety of other ways: at various scales, different places, and diverse purposes. To provide more information on the flexible use of the NFF and to aid its application and development we provide links to this work. We have organised applications of the NFF into six overlapping categories:

Exploration tool

Apply the NFF to a system or problem setting to ‘open up’ for more plural perspectives on nature, and identify diverse values of interest, associated indicators and/or relevant data for monitoring.

For example, Resende et al (2020) used the NFF perspectives to identify different values associated with the water-related ecosystem services in the Brazilian Cerrado.

Classification tool

Use NFF perspectives as a topology for classification and assessment of information.

For example, Diprose et al (2022) used the NFF to make visible the diverse values around nature that are expressed and fostered through the New Zealand Garden Bird Survey.

Translating scenarios

Use the NFF to interpret and translate existing scenarios, for i) classification, assessment and cross-comparison of existing scenarios, or ii) adapting and augmenting existing scenarios into NFF scenarios.

For example, Quintero‐Uribe et al (2022) used the NFF to assess how participatory scenarios for restoring European landscapes depict the future of nature.

Developing visions and scenarios

Use the NFF in the development of visions, pathways and narratives. Fully fledged, integrated NFF scenarios are yet to be developed.

For example, Rana et al (2020) used the NFF to capture the voices of youth in visions of positive futures for nature and people.

Adapting and developing models

Use the NFF to assess model availability, and inspire repurposing or development of new models to quantify part of the NFF space.

For example,Haga et al (2023) modelled desirable futures at local scale by combining the nature futures framework and multi-objective optimization.

Discussing the NFF

Use the NFF to position new work such as concepts, theories or methods, e.g. to explain the relationship with the NFF or to inform its further development.

For example, Greenway (2022) argues that the NFF needs to engage with ‘new materialism thinking’ to help establish harmonious river-human relationships.

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